Non-deliverable Forward

A Net Non-Deliverable Forward (NDF) is a derivative contract used in currency markets where parties settle the net difference between a predetermined exchange rate and the prevailing market rate without physically delivering the underlying currency.


Non-Deliverable Forwards (NDFs) play a pivotal role in the world of foreign exchange (Forex) trading. They are a derivative product used to hedge against currency risk in markets where currency conversion or remittance restrictions exist. This comprehensive guide will delve into the intricacies of NDFs, their uses, benefits, and how they function in the global financial landscape.

What are non-deliverable forwards (NDFs)?

Non-Deliverable Forwards (NDFs) are financial contracts used to speculate on or hedge against the fluctuation of foreign currencies. They are typically utilized in markets where traditional forward contracts are impractical due to currency controls or limitations. NDFs allow investors to settle the difference in the value of a currency between the agreed-upon exchange rate and the actual rate at the contract's maturity.

How do NDFs work?

In an NDF, two parties agree on a future date, an exchange rate, and a notional amount in a specified currency. When the contract matures, the difference between the agreed-upon rate and the prevailing market rate is settled in cash. This cash settlement removes the need for physical delivery of the underlying currencies, making NDFs particularly useful in emerging markets or countries with restricted currency flows.

Uses and benefits of NDFs

  • Hedging currency risk: NDFs are commonly used by multinational corporations and financial institutions to hedge against currency risk in markets where traditional hedging instruments may not be feasible.
  • Speculative trading: Investors can use NDFs to speculate on the movement of exchange rates, aiming to profit from anticipated currency fluctuations.
  • Access to restricted markets: NDFs enable access to markets with currency controls or limitations, allowing participants to manage their exposure in such regions without requiring physical currency transactions.

Key considerations

  • Regulatory environment: NDFs are subject to varying regulatory environments. Understanding the legal and regulatory framework of the markets where NDFs are traded is crucial.
  • Market volatility: Currency markets can be highly volatile. Fluctuations in exchange rates may impact the settlement amount, leading to potential gains or losses.


Non-Deliverable Forwards (NDFs) provide a flexible and efficient means of managing currency risk and accessing markets with restrictions. Understanding how NDFs work and their applications is essential for businesses, investors, and financial institutions operating in global markets. Incorporating NDFs into a comprehensive risk management strategy can mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations, providing stability and opportunities for growth in the ever-evolving world of Forex trading.